Control emissions at the cylinder level

Background The principles of DeRochas

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1- A minimum boundary surface with a largest bore

The lower mechanical surface boundaries principle is meant to  decrease power loss from friction and inertia of the moving pistons, which increases dramatically at higher speeds. 

  

· In our Relative-Motion  Turbo Charged Version Design, having  the four strokes accomplished in one reciprocating cycle, where fluid intake and compression hosted in a separate compartment behind Our Floating Piston, and completed at the same time of the power and exhaust  strokes, a required acceleration to perform similar conventional cylinder work is decreased to half, with lower piston speed that not only decreases the overall piston-to-cylinder surface boundaries  as a function of time, but also increases the upper speed  limits of possible additional power gain.

2- A greatest initial piston speed

Any sacrifice of initial speed in a Conventional Cylinder would be a potential power loss. That is done, with Conventional Engines by initial combustion forces that could be thirty times higher than the load or resistance forces.

This principle has come under doubt since direct injection was applied, where some text books interpreted the advantages to be a result of higher compression ratios available with direct injection, and our interpretation concludes that better efficiencies with direct injection is a result of

1) Lower initial speeds  that allow a better equilibrium in transferring potential forces to piston  forces.

2) Lower average speed is helpful in ridding of the freeze zone at piston surface with more complete fuel burning.

  

· The new Relative-Motion Combustion Design is done with minimum acceleration required to maintain a working speed, which is optimized not only by the initial forces, but also by secondary forces of partial compression initiated behind the  Floating Piston, where  pressure is dynamically reflected as  forces applied to a crankshaft piston. 

The ratio of transmitting pressure forces to piston forces is enhanced by  the factor of decreased speed requirement 

3- A greatest expansion ratio

Designs intended to enhance expansion ratio were based on initial combustion conditions and allowance or limits of the negative driving force which starts about half way of the power stroke.

  • With the Relative Motion Design, we can simply maintain positive driving forces toward the end of the power stroke, extending the mid distance, and as a result the expansion ratio, regardless of initial conditions. As a result, initial acceleration and fuel requirements can be cut by about two to three folds.

4- A greatest initial combustion pressur

Simulation tests at similar compression ratios, show much higher initial pressure associated with premixed fluid but still with lesser performance.

  

       · In a Conventional Cylinder one of the disadvantages of having higher initial pressure with sharper force decline, is the in-equilibrium of transmitting pressure forces to piston forces associated with higher piston speed. 

        · Relative Motion Design, has its speed controlled, with its designed smaller combustion volume within its Floating Piston that has  internally a smaller total surface, and not by just initial pressure conditions, that allows us to use earlier direct injection before the spark, to increase initial pressure, with  a better equilibrium method  of transmitting pressure forces between the Floating Piston and  the crankshaft piston, where the expanding volume completes the hydrocarbon combustion at a lower temperature that reduces the NOx values to N2.

Separating the compression compartment

   

The Conventional Cylinder Designs during the past century have always committed to the above principles,  with most advances based on the third principle of increasing  its expansion ratio. 

The Relative Motion Cylinder compares itself to a four -stroke conventional cylinder, but the intake and compression strokes are done in a different compartment than the power and exhaust strokes 

The Relative Motion Cylinder difference

The Relative Motion Cylinder, can make a naturally aspirated engine with a piston configured for variable surface-to-pressure exposure during a power stroke, or can make a turbocharged engine with the four strokes split in two separate compartments, allowing one power stroke every cycle where torque pulses are further integrated in a uniform motion.

  • Engine air flow is limited by a choke point when a piston's average speed exceeds about 15 m/sec. This limitation is enhanced, by having a given piston speed of a Relative Motion cylinder, to work at a higher power output of comparable speed of a Conventional Cylinder.
  • As we increase the number of cylinders in a Conventional Cylinder Engine, and the torque pulses get more closely overlapped, vibration is better handled and refined. Similarly, further improvement is accomplished by having every piston cycle become a power cycle.
  • Splitting chambers of the four strokes, and making every piston cycle a power cycle, can also double the shaft power of the engine at a given revolving speed: P (W) =2π N (Rev/s) *T (N-m), where T= torque applied twice more frequently in a Relative Motion cylinder at a similar revolving speed.

Torque available at each operation speed is independently controlled by applying secondary forces, communicated from the turbocharge, to our Floating Piston, and to our crankshaft piston. "Enhancing potential-to-kinetic equilibrium with a power output improvement".  Some studies claim that the nonequilibrium is responsible for rendering 50%-90% of the burned fuel, as non-useful. 

  

        · Also, in a Conventional Cylinder, forces for performing the intake-compression piston cycle, are borrowed forces from another cylinder working power. In a Relative Motion Cylinder, a compression force borrowed,  becomes a secondary working force transferred to a piston.